Health & Fitness

How can thyroid be cured permanently?

The thyroid is a gland located in front of the windpipe or trachea at the neck region. The thyroid gland is butterfly-shaped weighs around 10 to 20 grams in normal adults. Thyroid volume is higher in men than in women. As we grow older, thyroid volume also increases. The higher the body weight, the higher the thyroid volume. The main function of the thyroid gland is to synthesize thyroid hormones. There are two types of thyroid hormones. They are T3 and T4. Many diseases can arise from the thyroid gland and the treatment varies. Ask to doctor online for a better understanding of the diseases of the thyroid gland.

Thyroid hormones play a vital role in human body metabolism regulation. Thyroid hormones act in multiple organs and produce various effects to regulate our body’s metabolism. Whether a permanent cure can be achieved or not is highly depending on the type of disease arises from the thyroid gland. Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are two conditions commonly arise from this gland. Hyperthyroidism means that the level of thyroid hormones are too high while hypothyroidism means that the level of thyroid hormones are too low.

Hyperthyroidism can be caused by:

  • Grave’s disease
  • Toxic adenoma
  • Toxic multinodular goitre
  • Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism
  • Trophoblastic disease and germ cell tumour
  • TSH-mediated hyperthyroidism
  • Patients taking epoprostenol

The clinical features of hyperthyroidism are:

  • Excessive sweating
  • Loosening and softening of the nails
  • Hyperpigmentation
  • Pruritus
  • Alopecia
  • Thinning of the hair
  • Protrusion of the eyeball (proptosis)
  • Pain in the eyes
  • Double vision
  • Increase heart rate
  • Hypertension
  • Shortness of breath
  • Vomiting
  • Painful in swallowing
  • Excessive thirst
  • Clubbing of the nails
  • Psychosis
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Irritability
  • Insomnia
  • Poor concentration
  • Confusion
  • Amnesia

The main cause of hyperthyroidism is Grave’s disease. Grave’s disease is an autoimmune disease. History taking, physical examination, and investigations are needed before the diagnosis of Grave’s disease is made. Grave’s disease can be cured permanently following treatment. The treatment options are:

  • Thionamides
  • Radioiodine
  • Surgery

Hypothyroidism can also be caused by:

  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
  • Thyroidectomy
  • Radioiodine treatment
  • External radiation
  • Iodine deficiency
  • Anti-thyroid medications

The clinical features of hyperthyroidism are:

  • Cool and pale skin
  • A decrease in sweat production
  • Brittle nails
  • Vitiligo
  • Spontaneous bleeding
  • Decrease heart rate
  • Hypertension
  • Fatigue
  • Shortness of breath
  • Constipation
  • Menstrual abnormalities
  • Muscle weakness and pain

The main cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is a chronic autoimmune thyroid gland inflammation and gradually thyroid failure. The cause of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is thought to be the combination of genetic and environmental factors. Grave’s disease which causes hyperthyroidism can evolve to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and vice versa. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis commonly affects women more than men at the ratio of 7:1. The precipitating factors for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis are:

  • Infection
  • Stress
  • Pregnancy
  • Iodine intake
  • Radiation exposure

History taking, physical examination, and investigations need to be done before a diagnosis of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis can be made. The treatments available are:

  • T4 hormone replacement therapy
  • Combined hormonal replacement therapy

After initiation of replacement therapy, patients need to be reevaluated again. It’s hard to achieve cure as the nature of this disease results in failure of the thyroid gland. However, slowing the progression and controlling the disease is highly effective. This will help to prevent any unwanted complications. Ask to doctor online for a better understanding of the diseases of the thyroid gland.

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